Natural law states that the end result is completely dependent upon the means employed. A reoccurring theme in all of the worlds religions is that an immoral beginning guarantees a negative outcome. Judaism and Christianity are big on that idea.
Communist countries have never been alone in trying to get positive results out of immoral initiatives. The end justifies the means, whether stated or not, is part of virtually every government program and initiative. It is the means employed that causes positive or negative outcomes.
What is the right thing to do? Sometimes that is a hard question to answer but usually it is not. Doing what is right in the present moment usually does not have an immediate benefit. Mostly those who do what is right are at a disadvantage in the present moment. Using the “end justifies the means” logic has some advantages up front but in a little time the costs outweigh the benefits.
Why do so many government initiatives turn out badly. The means of achieving the initiatives are immoral. It really is as simple as that.
I really do love math and statistics. Unfortunately those tools have little value in studying economics.